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Research Spotlight

Telehealth: Current Definitions and Future Trends
This report defines common telehealth terms across a variety of contexts and explains why it is important to use terminology that is contextually appropriate. Read More exit disclaimer icon 

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"I was Unsure at First": A Qualitative Evaluation of Patient Perceptions of VA Clinical Video Telehealth Visits in the V-IMPACT Program

Many veterans have skepticism about telehealth. This study examines how veteran’s opinions of telehealth change once they experience a virtual appointment. Findings show a wide variety of patient responses to telehealth appointments, and these experiences offer an opportunity for future telehealth providers to better understand the needs of their patients to make virtual care as effective and supportive as possible.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Ashley C Mog, Megan Moldestad, Rachael Kenney, Lauren Stevenson, Marcie Lee, P Michael Ho, George G Sayre

July 2022

Telehealth experience

Managing innovation: a qualitative study on the implementation of telehealth services in rural emergency departments

This study evaluates the gap in telehealth adoption and utilization in rural hospital emergency departments (TeleED) by analyzing factors that influence the implementation and sustainability of this service. Researchers identified eight different key factors that play crucial roles in the success of telehealth implementation in rural TeleED, and they believe using these strategies during the implementation process gives a more favorable outcome.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Health Resources and Services Administration

Mochamad Muska Nataliansyah, Kimberly A S Merchant, James A Croker, Xi Zhu, Nicholas M Mohr, James P Marcin, Hicham Rahmouni, Marcia M Ward

July 2022

Emergency health Rural health

Using Implementation Science to Understand Teledermatology Implementation Early in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-sectional Study

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telehealth in dermatology practices (teledermatology) has experienced rapid expansion. Implementation science uses evidence-based practices to improve the quality and effectiveness of healthcare services, and this study aims to understand more about how implementation science can be used in dermatologic care, as well as in teledermatology. Results from this study give health care providers insight on how to successfully continue the use teledermatology after the pandemic.

National Institutes of Health

Shanelle Mariah Briggs, Jules Benjamin Lipoff, Sigrid Marie Collier

June 2022

Telehealth experience

Parent satisfaction with the parent-provider partnership and therapy service delivery for children with disabilities during COVID-19: Associations with sociodemographic variables

Parents of children with disabilities played a huge role in facilitating the continuity of care for their children throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, especially through managing and delivering therapies remotely. This study aims to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and parent satisfaction with the delivery of therapy services for children with disabilities during the pandemic. Factors impacting parents' satisfaction with therapy services included access to telehealth services, number of household essential workers, number of children, parent education, and more.

National Institutes of Health

Ashley N Murphy, Ellie Bruckner, Linzy M Pinkerton, Heather J Risser

June 2022

Behavioral health Telehealth experience

Strategies to Ensure Continuity of Care Using Telemedicine with Older Adults during COVID-19: A Qualitative Study of Physicians in Primary Care and Geriatrics

This study examines the utilization of telehealth by patients aged 65 and older during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as explore the experiences of primary care physicians and geriatricians by conducting interviews. Examining various strategies used to maintain the care of patients aged 65 and older throughout the pandemic allows for future improvement of telehealth utilization for geriatricians. Findings indicate the importance of evaluating a patient's technological readiness in advance, making accommodations for disabilities, and involving caregivers throughout the telehealth experience.

National Institutes of Health

Kevin Chen, Natalie M Davoodi, Daniel H Strauss, Melinda Li, Frances N Jimenez, Kate M Guthrie, Elizabeth M Goldberg

June 2022

Telehealth experience

The Role of Telehealth and Clinical Informatics in Data Driven Primary Care Redesign

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth has experienced many updates in the past 3 years. These innovations have presented a new opportunity in the health care field for utilization of new ways to remotely monitor medically complex patients This study uses clinical informatics linked to inpatient and emergency department use to evaluate telehealth utilization of various population segments. Results show that there is potential to improve patient outcomes using telehealth in the primary care and acute care settings, as well as decrease emergency department and inpatient utilization.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Jodie L Brown, Sharon Hewner

June 2022

Remote patient monitoring Workforce development

Telehealth for Women's Preventative Services

This study evaluated the effectiveness, use, and implementation of telehealth for women's preventative services for reproductive healthcare and interpersonal violence (IPV), and to evaluate patient preferences and engagement for telehealth, particularly in the context of COVID-19. Three of the 16 studies indicated that telehealth utilization increased during COVID-19 public health emergency.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Cantor A, Nelson HD, Pappas M, Atchison C, Hatch B, Huguet N, Flynn B, McDonagh M.

June 2022

Telehealth experience

Public health implications of adapting HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis programs for virtual service delivery in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review

Based on a systematic review, the authors suggest a virtual service delivery model for PrEP that can be leveraged for the COVID-19 public health emergency using the internet and social media for demand creation, community-based self-testing, telehealth platforms for risk assessment and follow-up, applications for support groups and adherence/appointment reminders, and applications and internet for monitoring.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Pragna Patel, Michael Kerzner, Jason B Reed, Patrick Sullivan, Wafaa M El-Sadr

June 2022

HIV/AIDS

Clinical Appropriateness of Telehealth: A Qualitative Study of Endocrinologists' Perspectives

Since the use of telehealth in outpatient endocrinology is likely to remain common after the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines how endocrinologists determine clinical appropriateness for telehealth and identifies their strategies to navigate barriers to safe and effective use. This research is crucial due to the absence of guidelines on telehealth use in this field, and the findings show the need for expert guidance to anchor future evidence-based guidelines for determining clinical appropriateness of telehealth in endocrinology.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Kailyn E Sitter, Denise H Wong, Rendelle E Bolton, Varsha G Vimalananda

June 2022

Telehealth experience

Predictors of telemedicine use during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States-an analysis of a national electronic medical record database

Although telehealth utilization has rapidly increased within the past years, disadvantaged groups still face barriers to access. This is a retrospective study that analyzes outpatient medical encounters for patients using a national electronic medical record database from March 1 to December 31, 2020. Findings show that older and non-Hispanic Black patients had significantly lower levels of telehealth utilization than other patient groups.

National Institutes of Health

Sameed Ahmed M Khatana , Lin Yang, Lauren A Eberly, Howard M Julien, Srinath Adusumalli , Peter W Groeneveld

June 2022

Health equity Telehealth experience

Perceptions and Use of Telehealth Among Mental Health, Primary, and Specialty Care Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The purpose of this study was to capture healthcare providers attitudes towards telehealth utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic, since physician’s attitudes may impact utilization rates of telehealth by patients. Findings show differences in video, phone, and in-person care utilization across specialties, as well as clinicians attitudes towards telehealth having an impact on patient utilization.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Samantha L Connolly, Christopher J Miller, Allen L Gifford, Michael E Charness

June 2022

Behavioral health Telehealth experience

Schedule of Visits and Televisits for Routine Antenatal Care

This is a systematic review that examines the role that telehealth can play in the future of antenatal care. Various factors that could facilitate or create a barrier in the implementation of telehealth for antenatal care were also reviewed. Studies reviewed show that there were no differences in the amount of preterm births or neonatal intensive care unit admissions when comparing telehealth and in-person visits, and that both patients and providers are open to telehealth utilization in this field, but more research is needed.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Ethan M. Balk, Kristin J. Konnyu, Wangnan Cao, Monika Reddy Bhuma, Valery A. Danilack, Gaelen P. Adam, Kristen A. Matteson, Alex Friedman Peahl

June 2022

Maternal health

Behavioral healthcare organizations' experiences related to use of telehealth as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic: an exploratory study

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many behavioral health services having to transition to deliver care virtually via telehealth. This study analyzes the experiences of behavioral health organizations that used telehealth during the pandemic to determine any common themes. Results show that organizations viewed convenience, increased access to disadvantaged populations, and lack of commute as advantages of telehealth; common disadvantages included limited access to technology and possible ineffective treatments.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Abby Kisicki, Sara Becker, Michael Chaple, David H Gustafson, Bryan J Hartzler, Nora Jacobson, Ann A Murphy, Stephanie Tapscott, Todd Molfenter

June 2022

Behavioral health Telehealth experience

The Potential of Telecommunication Technology to Address Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV PrEP Awareness, Uptake, Adherence, and Persistence in Care: A Review

The purpose of this review was to understand how studies have used electronic telecommunication technology to increase awareness, uptake, adherence, and persistence in PrEP care among Black and Hispanic/Latino persons and how it can reduce social and structural barriers that contribute to disparities in HIV infection.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Kimberly N Evans, Rashida Hassan, Ashley Townes, Kate Buchacz, Dawn K Smith

May 2022

HIV/AIDS

Telehealth: Current Definitions and Future Trends  exit disclaimer icon 

This report defines common telehealth terms across a variety of contexts (clinicians, academia, federal stakeholders) and explains why it is important to use terminology that is contextually appropriate. Most patients will not distinguish between the terms “telehealth” and “telemedicine” in their use. Academic researchers may need to distinguish the terms to accurately describe and frame their research. Among federal stakeholders, telehealth is currently the most used term and would have the most recognition.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Hari Eswaran, Leah Dawson

May 2022

Health equity Telehealth experience

Addressing Hypertension Outcomes Using Telehealth and Population Health Managers: Adaptations and Implementation Considerations

This study examines various population health approaches to help with hypertension management. Telehealth is one approach that this study focuses on, with it being a cost-effective strategy that addresses multiple barriers to hypertension utilization and care delivery. Results show that telehealth is an effective strategy for advancing hypertension care within a population health paradigm by addressing multiple drivers of high blood pressure.

Health Resources and Services Administration; National Institutes of Health; United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Connor Drake, Allison A. Lewinski, Abigail Rader, Julie Schexnayder, Hayden B. Bosworth, Karen M. Goldstein, Jennifer Gierisch, Courtney White-Clark, Felicia McCant, and Leah L. Zullig

May 2022

Remote patient monitoring

Postpartum during a pandemic: Challenges of low-income individuals with healthcare interactions during COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many changes in women’s healthcare delivery for childbirth and the postpartum period, but these changes particularly affected low-income patients. This study examines various challenges that low-income patients experienced during the pandemic.

National Institutes of Health

Maria V Gomez-Roas, Ka'Derricka M Davis, Karolina Leziak, Jenise Jackson, Brittney R Williams, Joe M Feinglass, William A Grobman, Lynn M Yee

May 2022

Health equity Maternal health

Evaluation of Mental Health Mobile Applications

This is a technical brief that examines the potential of mobile application (app) utilization for mental health and wellness services. Although there are many mobile apps available for mental health services, there is little guidance that consumers and patients can use when trying to determine what application to use. This brief also provides a framework to assess apps based on different strengths and limitations.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Smisha Agarwal, Madhu Jalan, Holly C. Wilcox, Ritu Sharma, Rachel Hill, Emily Pantalone, Johannes Thrul, Jacob C. Rainey, Karen A. Robinson, Ph.D.

May 2022

Behavioral health

Direct and indirect effects of a Project ECHO longitudinal clinical tele-mentoring program on viral suppression for persons with HIV: a population-based analysis

Project ECHO tele-mentoring for community providers was associated with improvement in viral suppression for people with HIV whose providers participate or work in the same clinic system as a provider who participates.

Health Resources and Services Administration; National Institutes of Health

Brian R Wood, Karin Bauer, Richard Lechtenberg, Susan E Bushkin, Lea Bush, Jeff Capizzi, Beth Crutsinger-Perry, Steven J Erly, Timothy W Menza, Jennifer R Reuer, Matthew R Golden, James P Hughes

April 2022

HIV/AIDS

Telemedicine and visit completion among people with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic

During the COVID-19 public health emergency, telemedicine visit completion among people with HIV increased significantly, especially among populations with lower pre-pandemic engagement.

National Institutes of Health

Walid G El-Nahal, Nicola M Shen, Jeanne C Keruly, Joyce L Jones, Anthony T Fojo, Bryan Lau, Yukari C Manabe, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo, Catherine R Lesko, Geetanjali Chander

March 2022

HIV/AIDS

Child Health, Vulnerability, and Complexity: Use of Telehealth to Enhance Care for Children and Youth With Special Health Care Needs

Telehealth has the potential to improve the quality of care, particularly deficiencies related to access and patient experience of care for children and youth with special health care needs and reduce disparities related to accessing in-person care.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Jeanne Van Cleave, Christopher Stille, David E Hall

March 2022

Health equity Remote patient monitoring

Deploying a telemedicine collaborative care intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: A stepped wedge evaluation of an adaptive implementation strategy

This study uses two strategies, standard implementation and enhanced implementation, to determine the best way to incorporate telehealth utilization in trauma-focused psychotherapy for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results show that although telehealth is an effective means for engaging veterans in treatment, neither of these strategies were successful at incorporating telehealth into routine care treatment of PTSD.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

John C Fortney, Suparna Rajan, Heather S Reisinger, Jane Moeckli, John P Nolan, Edwin S Wong, Peter Rise, Valentina V Petrova, George G Sayre, Jeffrey M Pyne, Anouk Grubaugh, Fatma Simsek-Duran, Kathleen M Grubbs, Leslie A Morland, Bradford Felker, Paula P Schnurr

March 2022

Behavioral health

Telehealth Utilization During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Preliminary Selective Review

During the COVID-19 pandemic, in-person health care visits dramatically decreased, and the utilization of telehealth services increased. The purpose of this study is to examine various patterns in telehealth utilization based off certain factors, including geographical location, type of health care service, and a patient’s age, race, and income.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Amelia Harju, Jonathan Neufeld

February 2022

Telehealth experience

Telehealth Exercise Intervention in Older Adults With HIV: Protocol of a Multisite Randomized Trial

This study aims to successfully develop a synchronous telehealth exercise intervention program for people with HIV to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Krisann K. Oursler, Vincent C. Marconi, Brandon C. Briggs, John D. Sorkin, Alice S. Ryan

February 2022

HIV/AIDS

National Survey Trends in Telehealth Use in 2021: Disparities in Utilization and Audio vs. Video Services

This report analyzes national trends in telehealth utilization and how use of video-enabled vs. audio-only telehealth services differ across patient populations. The study finds notable disparities by race, ethnicity, income, age, and insurance status in access to video-enabled telehealth.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Madjid Karimi, Euny C. Lee, Sara J. Couture, Aldren Gonzales, Violanda Grigorescu, Scott R. Smith, Nancy De Lew, Benjamin D. Sommers

February 2022

Health equity Telehealth experience

A Pilot Study Examining Access to and Satisfaction with Maternal Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Treatment via Telemedicine

It is common for women to experience mental health problems and substance use disorders (SUDs) while pregnant and during the postpartum year. Unfortunately, many women are not able to receive proper treatment for these problems due to barriers to care, but using telehealth as a tool to increase access is one way to combat this. This study was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with their accessibility to proper treatment for these disorders, as well as their experiences with this care being delivered via telehealth. Results show that women receiving mental health and SUD treatment via telemedicine within their obstetrician's office had high levels of satisfaction, and that it significantly increased access to care.

Health Resources and Services Administration; National Institutes of Health

Constance Guille, Emily Johnson, Edie Douglas, Rubin Aujla, Lisa Boyars, Ryan Kruis, Rebecca Beeks, Kathryn King, Dee Ford, Katherine Sterba

January 2022

Behavioral health Maternal health Telehealth experience

Evaluation of a telemedicine pilot program for the provision of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in the Southeastern United States

In this telePrEP feasibility study, adherence to PrEP remained high and most participants preferred telemedicine or a combination of telemedicine and in-person office visits to only in-person office visits. Without this program, many participants were unlikely to have received PrEP.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Marty S Player, Nicole A Cooper, Suzanne Perkins, Vanessa A Diaz

January 2022

HIV/AIDS Telehealth experience

Rapid Implementation of a Telemedicine Program in a Ryan White–Funded HIV Clinic During a Global Pandemic

With the introduction of telemedicine in an HIV clinic, the average monthly number of patient encounters increased, the mean no-show rate decreased, and viral suppression increased. Patient satisfaction also increased during this period.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Peter T Ender, Rebecca H Markson, Ambuj Suri, Katey Ruppert, Nichole Padron, Jill C Stoltzfus, Victoria Berges, Rajika Reed

January 2022

HIV/AIDS

Experiences with Telemedicine for HIV Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Study

People with HIV and clinical staff perceive telemedicine visits as useful, with benefits including the ability to engage and re-engage patients in care, perceived patient-centeredness and flexibility, the opportunity to engage family and multidisciplinary care team members, and the opportunity to enhance telemedicine use proficiency through practice and support.

National Institutes of Health

Dini Harsono, Yanhong Deng, Sangyun Chung, Lydia A Barakat, Gerald Friedland, Jaimie P Meyer, Elizabeth Porter, Merceditas Villanueva, Michael S Wolf, Jessica E Yager, E Jennifer Edelman

January 2022

HIV/AIDS Telehealth experience

Patient Experience with In-Person and Telehealth Visits Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic at a Large Integrated Health System in the United States

The positive experiences with telehealth reported in this study, especially video based telehealth, may be due to patient appreciation of efforts made to maintain access during the COVID-19 public health emergency, the focused nature of telehealth visits, and help by staff for navigation technical issues.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Ron D Hays, Samuel A Skootsky

January 2022

Telehealth experience

Use of Telehealth Services for Prenatal Care in Mississippi: Comparison of Pre-COVID-19 Pandemic and Pandemic Obstetric Management

There has been little research to examine the use of telehealth during the COVID-19 public health emergency and its impact on the delivery of care during pregnancy and outcomes associated with pregnancy. This study examines prenatal care practices during the height of the first wave of the COVID-19 public health emergency, compared to the immediate pre-pandemic time period, and explores maternal and birth outcomes during these time periods.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Jennifer C Reneker, Yunxi Zhang, Dorthy K Young, Xiaojian Liu, Elizabeth A Lutz

January 2022

Maternal health

Patient and Provider Perspectives on Pediatric Telemedicine During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid expansion of telemedicine services, and the purpose of this study is to better understand perceptions of telemedicine and compare parent/guardian satisfaction between in-person and telemedicine encounters.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Sophie E Katz, Preston Spencer, Christine Stroebel, Lora Harnack, Jason Kastner, Ritu Banerjee

December 2021

Telehealth experience

Telehealth for HIV Care Services in South Carolina: Utilization, Barriers, and Promotion Strategies During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Telehealth was used to provide a wide array of medical and supportive HIV services, including case management, support groups, housing, food, and transportation services. Staff education, cell phone distribution, client empowerment and technology use guidance, bureaucracy and process adjustments, and reimbursement changes are all strategies that could further facilitate telehealth use to deliver care and treatment to people with HIV.

National Institutes of Health

Valerie Yelverton, Shan Qiao, Sharon Weissman, Bankole Olatosi, Xiaoming Li

December 2021

HIV/AIDS

Brief Report: Supporting Access to HIV Care for Children and Youth During the COVID-19 Pandemic With Telemedicine and Rideshare

Telemedicine has the potential to bridge pediatric health care gaps. Telemedicine combined with rideshare support ensured uninterrupted access to HIV care among pediatric and adolescent patients.

National Institutes of Health

Wei Li A Koay, Supriya Prabhakar, Anne Neilan, Joanna Meyers, Nara Lee, Natella Rakhmanina

December 2021

HIV/AIDS

Medicare Beneficiaries’ Use of Telehealth in 2020: Trends by Beneficiary Characteristics and Location

This research report examines changes in Medicare fee-for-service Part B visits and the use of telehealth in 2020 during the COVID-19 public health emergency by beneficiary characteristics, provider specialty, and location.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Lok Wong Samson, Wafa Tarazi, Gina Turrini, Steven Sheingold

December 2021

Emergency health Medicare and Medicaid

Bringing Iowa TelePrEP to Scale: A Qualitative Evaluation

Regional partnerships between public health organizations and telehealth programs have the potential to expand access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in rural and small urban areas, but the best practices on how to successfully conduct these partnerships are unknown. Iowa TelePrEP is a regional public health‒partnered telehealth model created by the Iowa Department of Public Health and the University of Iowa to assess barriers and facilitators to statewide expansion and the lessons learned in the process. The facilitators of expansion included early public health partner engagement, model acceptability and inclusion of a navigator, and adaptability to local public health partner settings.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Emily E Chasco, Cody Shafer, Dena M B Dillon, Seth Owens, Michael E Ohl, Angela B Hoth

November 2021

Health equity HIV/AIDS Rural health

Georgia Leverages Telehealth to Expand HIV Care Management in Underserved Areas

In Georgia, HIV telehealth has been successful at bridging gaps in patient care and in training local providers to offer comprehensive HIV care. A total of 60 telemedicine solutions were deployed in Georgia to expand HIV care access in 12 Georgia health districts. Among Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program clients who had a telehealth visit, 99.4% were prescribed antiretroviral therapy and 91.4% were virally suppressed.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Suleima Salgado, Gregory Felzien, Jared Brumbeloe

November 2021

Health equity HIV/AIDS

Implementation of Telehealth Services in Rural Schools: A Qualitative Assessment  exit disclaimer icon 

This study explores facilitators and barriers to the implementation of telehealth programs in rural schools and identifies strategies for successful implementation.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Kimberley Fox, Amanda Burgess, Martha Elbaum Williamson, John Massey, George Shaler, Karen Pearson, Jennifer Mackenzie, Kimberly Merchant, Xi Zhu, Marcia Ward

November 2021

Rural health School-based health

Employing telehealth within HIV care: advantages, challenges, and recommendations

While the COVID-19 pandemic added new challenges within the medical field, it also presented new opportunities, such as catalyzing the implementation of telehealth within spaces that offer care for people living with HIV, substance use disorders, and various behavioral health problems.

National Institutes of Health

Melissa Grove, L. Lauren Brown, Hannan K. Knudsen, Erika G. Martin, Bryan R. Garner

July 2021

Behavioral health HIV/AIDS

Telehealth for HIV Care Services in South Carolina: Utilization, Barriers, and Promotion Strategies During the COVID-19 Pandemic

This study examines telehealth utilization for HIV services in South Carolina, identifies barriers to telehealth during the COVID-19 public health emergency, and investigates strategies to facilitate remote HIV care delivery.

National Institutes of Health

Valerie Yelverton, Shan Qiao, Sharon Weissman, Bankole Olatosi, Xiaoming Li

June 2021

HIV/AIDS

Keeping Pace With 21st Century Healthcare: A Framework for Telehealth Research, Practice, and Program Evaluation in Occupational Therapy

The use of telehealth in occupational therapy is steadily increasing, but there is little framework around the evaluation of these services. This study introduces the PACE Framework, which aims to support researchers and practitioners in systematically evaluating components of telehealth service delivery in occupational therapy through population and health outcomes, access for all clients, costs and cost-effectiveness, and the experiences of clients and occupational therapy practitioners.

National Institutes of Health

Lauren M. Little, Kristen A. Pickett, Rachel Proffitt, Jana Cason

June 2021

Telehealth experience

Telehealth for the Treatment of Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders

This guide reviews the research on the effectiveness of using telehealth for serious mental illness and substance abuse disorders. It makes recommendations for practice and provides examples of how practitioners use these practices in their programs.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

June 2021

Behavioral health

Seeing the Value of Video: A Qualitative Study on Patient Preference for Using Video in a Veteran Affairs Telemental Health Program Evaluation

A web-based treatment program for veterans utilizes video visits with mental health experts to conduct online cognitive behavioral therapy that targets treating clinically significant symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. This program evaluated whether or not veterans thought that using video during these sessions is important, and why it may or may not be important. Results show that being able to visually see a provider has distinct benefits for care and the patient-provider relationship, which gives important information for future telehealth use when debating whether to use video or phone for remote care.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Patricia V Chen, Ashley Helm, Terri Fletcher, Miryam Wassef, Julianna Hogan, Amy Amspoker, Marylene Cloitre, Jan Lindsay

May 2021

Behavioral health Telehealth experience

Comparative effects of telephone versus in-office behavioral counseling to improve HIV treatment outcomes among people living with HIV in a rural setting

People with HIV at risk for discontinuing HIV care and treatment failure living in rural areas expressed a preference for telephone-delivered behavioral counseling and those who received telephone counseling completed a greater number of sessions.

National Institutes of Health

Seth C Kalichman, Harold Katner, Lisa A Eaton, Ellen Banas, Marnie Hill, Moira O Kalichman

April 2021

HIV/AIDS Rural health

Evaluation of an Intrahospital Telemedicine Program for Patients Admitted With COVID-19: Mixed Methods Study

In this study, virtual care was associated with reductions in personal protective equipment use, reductions in COVID-19 exposure risk, and patient and provider satisfaction.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; National Institutes of Health

Sean Legler, Matthew Diehl, Brian Hilliard, Andrew Olson, Rebecca Markowitz, Christopher Tignanelli, Genevieve B Melton, Alain Broccard, Jonathan Kirsch, Michael Usher

April 2021

Emergency health

The Future of Telehealth in School-Based Health Centers: Lessons from COVID-19

A qualitative analysis of nationally-led "Listening and Learning" sessions by the School-Based Health Alliance revealed substantial innovation and expansion of telehealth services due to COVID-10. School-based health programs were shown to reduce barriers to health care access, protect the most vulnerable, and decrease the spread of disease. Telehealth implementations in schools may also help keep youth from emergency departments and provide needed mental health care.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Anna Goddard, Erin Sullivan, Paula Fields, Suzanne Mackey

January 2021

School-based health

HRSA's Evidence-Based Tele-Emergency Network Grant Program: Multi-site Prospective Cohort Analysis Across Six Rural Emergency Department Telemedicine Networks  exit disclaimer icon 

Six rural hospital systems received grants from HRSA to study how their emergency telehealth departments affect outcomes for patients. Telehealth was often the patient’s first point of contact and usually resulted in a transfer to a distant hospital or local inpatient facility. Findings suggest that emergency telehealth plays an important role in improving access for rural emergency patients.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Sarah Heppner, Nicholas Mohr, Knute Carter, Fred Ullrich, Kimberly Merchant, Marcia Ward

January 2021

Emergency health Health equity Rural health

Maternal Telehealth Access Project (MTAP) Report on Community Grant Program  exit disclaimer icon 

The Maternal Telehealth Access Project (MTAP) was launched to ensure that quality telehealth prenatal and postpartum services are accessible and available in underserved communities during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Increased access to perinatal services and support via telehealth, including clinical care, care coordination, support, and doulas/community health workers leads to improved clinical outcomes for moms and babies

Health Resources and Services Administration

Leslie deRosset, Sarah Verbiest, Dorothy Cilenti, Dawn Godbolt, Kelli Sheppard

November 2020

Maternal health

Telehealth Use in a Rural State: A Mixed Methods Study Using Maine's All-Payer Claims Database  exit disclaimer icon 

The expansion of telehealth in Maine is partly driven by Medicare patients. This research suggests telehealth is improving access to behavioral health and speech-language pathology. Telehealth is limited, however, by access problems including provider shortages, lack of broadband, and other insurance coverage like Medicare and commercial policies.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Yvonne Jonk, Martha Williamson, Deborah Thayer, Jennifer MacKenzie, Catherine McGuire, Kimberley Fox, Andrew Coburn

October 2020

Behavioral health Health equity Medicare and Medicaid Rural health

Telebehavioral Health Use Among Rural Medicaid Beneficiaries: Relationships with Telehealth Policies  exit disclaimer icon 

This study examines Medicaid telehealth policies and telebehavioral health use among rural fee-for-service (FFS) patients. It finds that rural Medicaid FFS beneficiaries may have better access to telebehavioral health services when they give informed consent in a provider setting.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Jean Talbot, Yvonne Jonk, Amanda Burgess, Deborah Thayer, Erika Ziller, Nathan Paluso, Andrew Coburn

October 2020

Behavioral health Health equity Medicare and Medicaid Rural health Telehealth experience

Leveraging Digital Platforms to Scale Health Care Workforce Development: The Career 911 Massive Open Online Course

A massive open online course (MOOC) called Career 911 was created to encourage students from diverse backgrounds to explore health-related professions.

National Institutes of Health

Melissa A Simon, Shaneah Taylor, Laura S Tom

September 2020

Workforce development

Telepsychiatric Consultation as a Training and Workforce Development Strategy for Rural Primary Care

There is a shortage of rural primary care personnel with expertise in team care for patients with common mental disorders. This research investigated the feasibility of regular systematic case reviews through telepsychiatric consultation, within collaborative care for depression, as a continuous training and workforce development strategy in rural clinics.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Morhaf Al Achkar, Ian M. Bennett, Lydia Chwastiak, Theresa Hoeft, Tre Normoyle, Melinda Vredevoogd, Davis G. Patterson

September 2020

Rural health Workforce development

Outcomes of a Rapid Adolescent Telehealth Scale-Up During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In response to the COVID-19 public health emergency, health systems needed to quickly transition from in-person visits to telehealth. This study examines the unique challenges within adolescent medicine during this transition, such as patient confidentiality during digital communication and multidisciplinary care teams learning to use video formats.

Health Resources and Services Administration; National Institutes of Health

Sarah M. Wood, Krishna White, Rebecka Peebles, Julia Pickel, Maryam Alausa, Jamie Mehringer, Nadia Dowshen

August 2020

Telehealth experience

Averted Transfers in Rural Emergency Departments Using Telemedicine: Rates and Costs Across Six TeleED Networks  exit disclaimer icon 

Using telemedicine in rural emergency departments saved an average of $2,673 per patient by avoiding transport costs. The majority of the cost savings went to public insurance.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Marcia Ward, Knute Carter, Fred Ullrich, Kimberly Merchant, Nabil Natafgi, Xi Zhu, Paula Weigel, Sarah Heppner, Nicholas Mohr

August 2020

Emergency health Rural health

A telehealth lifestyle intervention to reduce excess gestational weight gain in pregnant women with overweight or obesity (GLOW): a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial

Significant weight gain in pregnancy among overweight or obese women increases their already elevated risk of having gestational diabetes, a cesarean delivery, and post-partum weight retention. It also increases the chances of a larger infant and the child's risk of obesity. This research investigated whether a telehealth lifestyle intervention reduced excess weight gain in participants.

National Institutes of Health

Assiamira Ferrara, Monique M Hedderson, Susan D Brown, Samantha F Ehrlich, Ai-Lin Tsai, Juanran Feng, Maren Galarce, Santica Marcovina, Patrick Catalano, Charles P Quesenberry

June 2020

Maternal health

Process of Identifying Measures and Data Elements for the HRSA School-Based Telehealth Network Grant Program  exit disclaimer icon 

An analysis of the School-Based Telehealth Network Grant Program’s initiatives to measure the effect that telehealth has on the quality of healthcare services offered in schools. The project also aimed to identify a common set of measures that could assess school-based telehealth services, utilization, processes, and outcomes.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Marcia Ward, Kimberley Fox, Kimberly Merchant, Amanda Burgess, Fred Ullrich, Karen Pearson, George Shaler, Christopher Shea, Steve North, Carlos Mena

June 2020

Rural health School-based health

Project Moxie: Results of a Feasibility Study of a Telehealth Intervention to Increase HIV Testing Among Binary and Nonbinary Transgender Youth

Because transgender youth have low rates of engagement in HIV prevention, Project Moxie tested the feasibility of an intervention that provides home-based HIV self-testing combined with video-chat counseling.

National Institutes of Health

Rob Stephenson, Kieran Todd, Erin Kahle, Stephen Sullivan, Michael Miller-Perusse, Akshay Sharma, Keith Horvath

May 2020

HIV/AIDS Telehealth experience

Telehealth with remote blood pressure monitoring compared with standard care for postpartum hypertension

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) affect 10% of the pregnancies in the United States and are the most common reason for postpartum hospital readmissions. This study considers whether postpartum home telehealth with remote blood pressure monitoring could reduce the readmission rates during the first 6 weeks postpartum in women with HDP.

National Institutes of Health

Kara Kjersten Hoppe, Nicole Thomas, Melissa Zernick, Julia B Zella, Thomas Havighurst, KyungMann Kim, Makeba Williams, Brenda Niu, Ali Lohr, Heather M Johnson

May 2020

Maternal health Remote patient monitoring

Emergency Department Telemedicine Consults are Associated with Faster Time-to-ECG and Time-to-Fibrinolysis for Myocardial Infarction Patients  exit disclaimer icon 

Heart attack is a common and deadly event that requires treatment as soon as possible. Telemedicine can improve how quickly heart attacks are diagnosed and treated in rural hospitals.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Aspen Miller, Marcia Ward, Fred Ullrich, Kimberly Merchant, Morgan Swanson, Nicholas Mohr

February 2020

Emergency health Health equity Rural health

PrEPTECH: a telehealth-based initiation program for human immunodeficiency virus pre-exposure prophylaxis in young men of color who have sex with men. A pilot study of feasibility.

This pilot study uses a telehealth-based approach to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) initiation as a solution to barriers such as stigma, cost, adherence concerns, and medical distrust.

National Institutes of Health

Oliver N. Refugio, Mabel M. Kimble, Cara L. Silva, James E. Lykens, Christian Bannister, Jeffrey D. Klausner

January 2020

Health equity HIV/AIDS

Provider-to-Provider Telemedicine Improves Adherence to Sepsis Bundle Care in Community Emergency Departments  exit disclaimer icon 

Sepsis occurs when an infection reaches the bloodstream and getting care quickly improves the chances of survival. In this study, telemedicine in the emergency department improved the rates of adhering to the sepsis treatment protocol. The timely replacement of fluids and the administration of antibiotics greatly improved sepsis care at rural community hospitals.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Nicholas Mohr, Kaylyn Campbell, Morgan Swanson, Fred Ullrich, Kimberly Merchant, Marcia Ward

January 2020

Emergency health Health equity Rural health

Emergency Department Telemedicine Consults Decrease Time to Interpret Computed Tomography of the Head in a Multi-Network Cohort  exit disclaimer icon 

A study of emergency telemedicine (tele-ED) for stroke care in four tele-ED networks. Tele-ED was associated with decreased time to diagnostic imaging interpretation and time to thrombolytic medication.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Morgan Swanson, Aspen Miller, Marcia Ward, Fred Ullrich, Kimberly Merchant, Nicholas Mohr

November 2019

Emergency health

Tele-Emergency Behavioral Health in Rural and Underserved Areas  exit disclaimer icon 

Severe shortages of behavioral health specialists in rural and underserved areas make placing patients in appropriate facilities difficult. This paper describes two different emergency departments in the Midwest using telemedicine to address behavioral health access and placement for patients in rural and underserved areas. Findings suggest that transfer to in-patient facilities was much higher in both models when using telemedicine.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Paula Weigel, Divya Bhagianadh, Kimberly Merchant, Amy Wittrock, Hicham Rahmouni, Amanda Bell, Stephanie Laws, Marcia Ward

November 2019

Behavioral health Emergency health Rural health

A Postpartum Remote Hypertension Monitoring Protocol Implemented at the Hospital Level

This study evaluated using remote blood pressure monitoring on postpartum women with hypertension when they leave the hospital. It found that remote monitoring of this type showed high patient compliance, retention, and satisfaction.

National Institutes of Health

Alisse Hauspurg, Lara S Lemon, Beth A Quinn, Anna Binstock, Jacob Larkin, Richard H Beigi, Andrew R Watson, Hyagriv N Simhan

October 2019

Maternal health Remote patient monitoring

The Use of Telehealth in School-Based Health Centers

School-based telehealth programs can expand health care access to rural and underserved youth by eliminating barriers to access, such as transportation. This article describes characteristics of School-Based Telehealth Centers using technology to add to the access of care beyond onsite providers for underserved communities.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Hayley Love, Ph.D., MSc, Nirmita Panchal, MPH, John Schlitt, MSW, Caroline Behr, BA, Samira Soleimanpour, Ph.D., MPH

October 2019

Rural health School-based health

Development of a tailored, telehealth intervention to address chronic pain and heavy drinking among people with HIV infection: integrating perspectives of patients in HIV care

Chronic pain and heavy drinking commonly co-occur and can influence the course of HIV, but there have been no interventions designed to address both conditions among people living with HIV. This study aims to better understand pain symptoms, patterns of alcohol use, treatment experiences, and technology use in order to tailor a telehealth intervention that will address all these conditions.

National Institutes of Health

Tibor P. Palfai, Jessica L. Taylor, Richard Saitz, Maya P. L. Kratzer, John D. Otis, Judith A. Bernstein

August 2019

Behavioral health HIV/AIDS

The Use of and Experiences With Telelactation Among Rural Breastfeeding Mothers: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Telelactation services connecting breastfeeding mothers to lactation consultants increase access to professional breastfeeding support in rural areas. This research shows both high demand for and positive experiences with these telehealth services in an underserved population.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Kandice Kapinos, Virginia Kotzias, Debra Bogen, Kristin Ray, Jill Demirci, Mary Ann Rigas, Lori Uscher-Pines

August 2019

Health equity Maternal health Rural health

Telehealth and texting intervention to improve HIV care engagement, mental health and substance use outcomes in youth living with HIV: a pilot feasibility and acceptability study protocol

This study aims to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary clinical outcomes of a 12-session telehealth counseling series provided to young adults living with HIV that will include education, motivational enhancement and problem-solving around HIV care, mental health, substance use, and other challenges.

National Institutes of Health

Angie R Wootton, Dominique A Legnitto, Valerie A Gruber, Carol Dawson-Rose, Torsten B Neilands, Mallory O Johnson, Parya Saberi

July 2019

Behavioral health HIV/AIDS

Cell Phone Counseling Improves Retention of Mothers With HIV Infection in Care and Infant HIV Testing in Kisumu, Kenya: A Randomized Controlled Study

This study shows the effectiveness of cell phone counseling to keep pregnant women with HIV in care in Kisumu, Kenya. Phone counseling helps reach and retain pregnant women with HIV infection and postpartum mothers in care. It also improved infant HIV testing and antenatal and postnatal care services.

United States Agency for International Development

Avina Sarna, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Jerry Okal, James Matheka, Danmark Owuor, Roopal J Singh, Nancy Reynolds, Sam Kalibala

June 2019

Behavioral health HIV/AIDS Maternal health

Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Health Intervention to Promote Retention and Adherence to Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Young People at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The EPIC Study

Young people are the least likely to use protection against sexually transmitting HIV. An interactive text-messaging intervention significantly increased the odds of using protection among young individuals at risk for getting HIV.

National Institutes of Health

Albert Y Liu, Eric Vittinghoff, Patricia von Felten, K Rivet Amico, Peter L Anderson, Richard Lester, Erin Andrew, Ixchell Estes, Pedro Serrano, Jennifer Brothers, Susan Buchbinder, Sybil Hosek, Jonathan D Fuchs

May 2019

HIV/AIDS

Text Messages Can Encourage Patients to Discuss and Receive HIV Testing in Primary Care

Regular HIV testing does not often happen in primary care visits. Providers want patients to ask for the test, as opposed to suggesting it themselves. This study finds that using a patient-centered text message campaign may prompt patients to discuss HIV testing with their physicians, thereby increasing HIV testing.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Renata Wettermann, Haley Marek, Thomas P. Giordano, Monisha Arya

May 2019

HIV/AIDS

Pediatric tele-emergency care: A study of two delivery models  exit disclaimer icon 

The study evaluates two tele-emergency department programs for pediatric patients with different designs, one general and one specialized. The study shows design choices affect how programs are evaluated and highlights the challenge of creating standard metrics.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Paula A Weigel, Kimberly AS Merchant, Amy Wittrock, Jamie Kissee, Fred Ullrich, Amanda L Bell, James P Marcin, Marcia M Ward

April 2019

Emergency health Rural health

Feasibility and acceptability of an online positive affect intervention for those living with comorbid HIV depression

This article presents pilot data of using an online intervention to improve the outlook of people living with both HIV and depression. The intervention was rated well by patients and was shown to be both acceptable and feasible to use.

National Institutes of Health

S. M. Bassett, M. Cohn, P. Cotten, I. Kwok, J. T. Moskowitz

March 2019

Behavioral health HIV/AIDS

Implementation Strategies for Telestroke: A Qualitative Study of Telestroke Networks in North Carolina  exit disclaimer icon 

This study examines the adoption decision process and strategies employed during telestroke network development, implementation, and sustainability.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Christopher Shea, Kea Turner, Amir Alishahi Tabriz, Steve North

September 2018

Emergency health Rural health

Telestroke Adoption Among Community Hospitals in North Carolina: A Cross-Sectional Study  exit disclaimer icon 

Telestroke is the use of telemedicine in stroke care. This study identifies community and hospital characteristics associated with adoption of telestroke among acute care hospitals in North Carolina.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Christopher Shea, Amir Tabriz, Kea Turner, Steve North, Kristin Reiter

May 2018

Emergency health Rural health

Feasibility of an image-based mobile health protocol for postoperative wound monitoring

Patients and caregivers were willing and able to use a mobile program to monitor wounds after surgery. Early results showed health providers identified and managed wound complications.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; National Institutes of Health

Rebecca L Gunter, Sara Fernandes-Taylor, Shahrose Rahman, Lola Awoyinka, Kyla M Bennett, Sharon M Weber, Caprice C Greenberg, K Craig Kent

January 2018

Remote patient monitoring

A Mobile Application for Monitoring and Management of Depressed Mood in a Vulnerable Pregnant Population

This study tested whether a mood tracking and alert mobile application (MTA app) improved mental health care in high-risk pregnant mothers. The MTA app monitored activity, mood, and alerted providers to signs of worsening symptoms. Women who received a telephone call triggered by an MTA app alert were significantly more likely to receive a mental health specialist referral.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Liisa Hantsoo, Ph.D., Stephanie Criniti, M.S., Annum Khan, B.A., Marian Moseley, M.S.S., M.P.H., Naomi Kincler, M.P.H, Laura J. Faherty, M.D., M.P.H., C. Neill Epperson, M.D., Ian M. Bennett, M.D., Ph.D.

October 2017

Behavioral health Maternal health

Telemedicine Use Decreases Rural Emergency Department Length of Stay for Transferred North Dakota Trauma Patients  exit disclaimer icon 

Emergency department telemedicine consults for trauma patients were associated with faster hospital transfers and the increased use of radiography.

Health Resources and Services Administration; Health Resources and Services Administration's Telehealth Research Center

Nicholas M. Mohr, J. Priyanka Vakkalanka, Karisa K. Harland, Amanda Bell, Brian Skow, Dan M. Shane, Marcia M. Ward

July 2017

Emergency health Health equity Rural health

The Empirical Evidence for Telemedicine Interventions in Mental Disorders

Telemedicine in behavioral health may improve access to services amidst the critical shortage of mental health professionals. This article reviews the research literature to assess how successful, feasible and cost-effective the use of telemedicine may be in the treatment of mental disorders.

National Institutes of Health

Rashid L. Bashshur, Ph.D., Gary W. Shannon, Ph.D., Noura Bashshur, MHSA, Peter M. Yellowlees, MD

February 2016

Behavioral health

Broadband access and telemedicine adoption for opioid use disorder treatment in the United States

Buprenorphine is a medication used for patients who struggle with opioid use disorder, but only about 1 in 5 patients receive treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic increased telehealth utilization for addiction treatment with studies supporting telemedicine as an effective way to deliver treatment for opioid use disorder. This study aims to identify the percentage of the US population that experience challenges with treatment accessibility. Barriers to treatment that are examined in this study include limited internet access and the number of buprenorphine-waivered providers near a patient’s residence.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Mir M Ali, Robin Ghertner

July 2022

Behavioral health Rural health

Expanding access to substance use services and mental health care for people with HIV in Alabama, a technology readiness assessment using a mixed methods approach

Due to Alabama's vast amount of rural area, there are many obstacles that patients can face while trying to receive treatment for HIV. Specifically, HIV patients often experience challenges with access to treatment for mental health and substance use disorders (SUD) due to a lack of public health infrastructure and limited amounts of health care providers near their residence. This study examines if adopting telehealth screenings for mental health and SUDs can improve rural patients access to healthcare services.

National Institutes of Health

Ellen F Eaton, Kaylee Burgan, Greer McCollum, Sera Levy, James Willig, Michael J Mugavero, Sushanth Reddy, Eric Wallace, Tom Creger, Stefan Baral, Susanne Fogger, Karen Cropsey

July 2022

Behavioral health HIV/AIDS Rural health

The Lack of a Physical Exam During New Patient Telehealth Visits Does Not Impact Plans for Office and Operating Room Procedures

This study examines if surgical plans made during a telehealth visit remain unchanged after a pre-operative examination immediately before surgery. Data for this study was gathered during the COVID-19 pandemic on urology patients. Results show that majority of surgical planning made during new patient visits stayed the same after in-person examinations, signaling that telehealth can be a useful tool in the future for virtual surgical planning.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Nicholas W Eyrich, Juan J Andino, Roberta E Ukavwe, Mark W Farha, Akshar K Patel, Daniel Triner, Chad Ellimoottil

June 2022

Telehealth experience

Long-term Effects of Remote Patient Monitoring in Patients Living with Diabetes: A Retrospective Look at Participants of the Mississippi Diabetes Telehealth Network Study

This study examines the effectiveness of long-term remote patient monitoring (RPM) for patients with diabetes in the state of Mississippi. While RPM has been proven to be an effective tool for monitoring patient’s hemoglobin A1C levels, the ability of RPM to support patients in maintaining treatment is unclear. Many participants experienced reductions in hemoglobin levels after 12 months of nurse coaching and diabetes self-management education that were provided via telehealth, indicating that RPM could be an important tool in managing chronic diseases, specifically diabetes.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Tearsanee Carlisle Davis, Ashley S. Allen, and Yunxi Zhang

June 2022

Remote patient monitoring Rural health
Last updated: August 10, 2022

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